All posts by Chris Buchholz

Associations of Attachment Style and Romantic Relationship Satisfaction

Rachel Harmon, Emily Jones, Carter Smith, Shannon Blair Snyder, Kayleigh Walker

 (Advisor: Dr. Findley-Van Nostrand)

Background Information

There have been many studies conducted on attachment styles (i.e., characteristic ways of emotionally connecting with others) between parents and their children, and studies performed to evaluate romantic relationship satisfaction, but there are few studies combining the two concepts in young adults (Xia et al., 2018). Attachment style is developed through an individual internalizing their relationship, or lack thereof, with a primary caregiver in infancy and early childhood (Searle & Meara, 1999). We wanted to look at whether attachment style is associated with emerging adults’ current romantic relationship satisfaction. We also explored additional variables such as gender and length of the relationship. We chose to focus on individuals in emerging adulthood for several reasons. First, it is during this formative stage individuals are considering life-changing decisions regarding education, friendships, careers, and romantic relationships (Arnett, 2000). Second, romantic relationships in this stage differ from those experienced in adolescence because they tend to be longer in duration and more serious in intention (Arnett, 2000). Finally, little research has been done on emerging adults’ romantic relationships and our research can provide insight into this newly defined developmental stage.


Participants in our study were students from Roanoke College who were at least 18 years old and in a committed romantic relationship. Participants for this study were recruited through the Roanoke College Psychology Department via SONA, as well as within the greater campus community. Participants who were enrolled in a psychology course received a half SONA credit for participating. Eighty-five total participants completed the study.

Our study was an online survey through Qualtrics. Participants were asked to answer questions regarding gender, gender of their partner, their sexuality, age, relationship length, whether they and their significant other have “taken a break” and if so, the number of “breaks” they’ve taken. To measure attachment style, we used the 36-item Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Questionnaire. Scores on the ECR-R were calculated to reflect overall attachment insecurity, and anxious- and avoidant-attachment security as subscales. For relationship satisfaction, we used the 32-item Couple Satisfaction Index.

 Results and Discussion

          As expected, participants with secure attachment style reported higher relationship satisfaction (see Figure below- low scores on the ECR-R indicate more secure attachment). Also as expected, attachment-related anxiousness and attachment-related avoidance explained a pretty large amount of relationship satisfaction. Contrary to expectations, the association between attachment style and relationship satisfaction was stronger for participants who identified as male compared to participants who identified as female. Additionally, participants who reported higher levels of attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance had been in their current romantic relationship for a shorter-duration compared to participants with secure attachment. However, participants who had been with their current romantic partner for a longer amount of time reported higher levels of romantic relationship satisfaction. Participants who had not previously broken up with their current romantic partner also recorded significantly higher levels of relationship satisfaction compared to those who had previously broken up or “taken a break”.

Romantic relationships are an important part of emerging adulthood (Arnett, 2000). The results of the current study indicate that attachment style may influence satisfaction within romantic relationships during this phase of development. The results expand upon previous literature by investigating these associations specifically in emerging adulthood, while exploring the additional factors of gender, relationship duration and whether couples had previously broken up or “taken a break”.


This research process has been one that challenged us all in various ways throughout the semester. The first obstacle we faced was developing a study that interested us all and was relevant to the course. Our original goal with this study was to have the Roanoke College student and their significant other complete the survey in person. Requiring both the SONA student and their significant other to complete an in-person questionnaire limited our pool of students to those in relationships with a peer and those in a relationship with someone who is local. This meant that students who are in long distance relationships, and who may have had a lot to offer the research, were unable to partake in it. The original goal with having both individuals in a relationship complete the survey was to be able examine relationship satisfaction and attachment style within a relationship.

We originally decided to make this an in-person survey to increase validity. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the transition to remote learning, our study had to be switched to online only. With this new requirement of the study having to be online, we had to re-evaluate our methods. We changed the study requirement of both partners needing to complete it, to only surveying one partner. This increased the number of students who could participate in our study, which we believe improved our sample size. Conducting the study online may have eliminated any response bias that would have occurred in the lab because originally they would have been taking the survey across from their significant other, and may have felt pressure or guilt to respond a certain way, which could have altered their initial thoughts or feelings. Overall, working remotely on this has been challenging and time consuming. Having to completely rethink our study methods and then communicate with one another via WIFI when two group members have poor connection was difficult. We no longer had the option to meet whenever was convenient and work on the data analyses as a group. We instead had to find time where we could all video chat and then have one person screen share, running analyses, while the others watched. In the end, switching to online research was beneficial because we were able to broaden our pool of participants, adjust our research in an efficient way, and find significant associations.


          The main finding of our study indicates that the attachment style is associated with romantic relationship satisfaction. It is important to remember that attachment styles begin forming soon after birth and continue to evolve through the lifespan (Searle & Meara, 1999). While attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance were found to be significantly associated with romantic relationship satisfaction, we were also able to conclude that male romantic relationship satisfaction is somewhat more likely to be dependent upon attachment style in comparison to females.


Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469-480. 1037/0003-066X.55.5.469

Searle, B., & Meara, N. M. (1999). Affective dimensions of attachment styles: Exploring self-reported attachment style, gender, and emotional experience among college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46(2), 147–158.         1037/0022-0167.46.2.147

Xia, M., Fosco, G., Lippold, M., & Feinberg, M. (2018). A developmental perspective on young adult romantic relationships: Examining family and individual factors in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(7), 1499-1516.  doi:10.1007/s10964-018-0815-8

Does Art Affect Our Self-Certainty?

Ashley Rioux, Jordyn Markle, and Dionne Liberia

(Advisor: Dr. Danielle Findley-Van Nostrand)

How well do you really know yourself? Limited research has been done on the relationship between creativity and self-concept clarity. There is some evidence that people who have reached a higher status of identity are more likely to be creative while the antithesis is true for those in lower stages of identity development (Dollinger, Dollinger, & Centeno 2005). As the identity crisis is a common problem in adolescents (Riley, 1999), some art therapy techniques are designed to aid in the development of one’s identity (Beaumont, 2015). This is useful because self-concept clarity is related to positive adjustment. The current experiment was aimed at developing a more thorough understanding of how the expression of creativity affects self-concept clarity, particularly in individuals who already identify as artistic.

58 participants from Roanoke College psychology classes were gathered through the SONA online research management system. Participants, emerging adults who earned credit in class for their participation, were then randomly assigned to either complete a 2-D art task (a self-portrait) or to write about their last 24 hours (this was the control group). Before the task,  we collected information about level of artistic ability and experience in art. Before and after the task, they completed self-concept questionnaires, including indicating how certain they were (on a scale of 0-100) in each personality trait rated, and a self-report measure of self-concept clarity.

We found that overall, self-certainty (the average certainty in personality ratings) didn’t seem to differ based on doing the art task or not. But, then we ran tests separately for people who have an art background or not and found that if an individual already has an artistic background, they had higher self-concept certainty after doing a creative task than individuals who have no artistic background (see Figure 1). We expected this experiment would result in evidence indicating that creative outlets aid in one’s sense of self-concept clarity, and found that this was true only for people with an artistic background. However, other measures of creativity and experience in art were not related to certainty in self-concepts, and responses on the self-reported self-concept clarity scale were not related to participation in the task.

Since only one finding reached statistical significance, it is important to consider possible sources of error. Due to some unforeseen issues, we were forced to adapt our study into an online-only study. This may have been an issue because one group of participants was prompted to complete a drawing task. Without being able to supervise the participants, there was no way to control the conditions under which each participant completed the task. Another issue we faced was participants submitting incomplete surveys. This too may be due to the shift to online-only studies. One way we may have been able to get better results would be to have a larger sample size with more participants in each group, completing the study in person.

The purpose of this study was to determine if creative outlets are an effective way to aid in the development of self-concept clarity in college students. We wanted to expand upon the existing research by comparing 2-D art to a non-creative task, as well as further defining the effect creativity has on self-concept clarity in emerging adults. The evidence suggests a relationship between artistic expression and identity exploration, but only in those who already have an artistic background. So, creative outlets may be less helpful to self-concept clarity for people with little or no prior background in art. This study has helped us understand the relationship between artistic expression and the self-clarity concept in emerging adults.

Figure 1: Average Self-Concept Certainty by Art Task/Control group and by Previous Art Experience.


Beaumont, Sherry. (2015). Art Therapy Approaches for Identity Problems during Adolescence. Canadian Art Therapy Association Journal. 25. 7-14.

Dollinger, Stephen & Dollinger, Stephanie & Centeno, Leslie. (2005). Identity and Creativity. Identity. 5. 315-339. 10.1207/s1532706xid0504_2.

Riley, S. (1999). Contemporary art therapy with adolescents. London: Jessica Kingsley

A Study Examining Responses to Overt Versus Relational Aggression in College Students

Hailey Davis, Jon Cody Mactutus, Alina Marino, and Hayley Mulford

Advisor: Dr. Findley-Van Nostrand

[Picture of Girl Being Bullied] (2015). Retrieved from

Background Information

The present study evaluated whether type of aggression (overt, relational) witnessed towards a peer impacted likelihood to intervene and/or desire to punish the aggressor, considering desensitization as a factor. Most peer aggression studies focus on childhood and adolescence, but we used emerging adults (18-24) instead because it would be further expansion as less is known about peer aggression in this age group.

Relational aggression is indirect, status hurting actions whereas overt aggression is direct actions with the intent to cause harm (Cairns, Neckerman, Ferguson, & Gariépy, 1989). Previous research has found that aggression has negative impacts on all involved; aggressors, victims, bystanders (Rivers, Poteat, Noret, & Ashurst, 2009). Both relational and overt aggression have internalizing and externalizing problems as negative possible outcomes for experiencing these types of aggression (Casper, Card, Bauman, & Toomey, 2017). The current study aimed to explore the differences in outcomes (intervening and punishing) based on the form of aggression (overt or relational). Although relational aggression is more common, especially in this age group, and just as problematic, people are less likely to recognize it as aggression (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995). So, we also tested whether people are more likely to perceive overt or relational aggression as aggression. Finally, we also explored the relationship of mood and previous exposure to aggression in these responses.


We recruited our participants through SONA, Roanoke College’s online psychology research website. Participants were awarded credit for their participation in this study. Everything was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Roanoke College Institutional Review Board, with participants supplying informed consent. In an online survey, participants were assigned to read a vignette about either relational or overt aggression where a familiar peer is aggressed upon by a stranger. First, they were asked questions to determine their current emotional state, then read a singular vignette, and then were asked if they thought the scene they read about was aggression. We also included a question to ensure that participants paid attention. 26 failed the check, leaving our final number of participants to be 130. We asked each participant whether what they just read about was aggression (and to what extent they thought it was aggression), how likely they would be to intervene in the situation, and to what extent they believed the aggressor should be punished. Participants were then asked about their previous exposure to either type of aggression. Lastly, participants were asked demographic information.

Results and Discussion

The results of the project were not as promising as we hoped. We had 60 participants in the relational aggression group and 69 participants in the overt aggression group. There was no significant difference in desire to punish between types of aggression. There was also no significant difference in likelihood to intervene between types of aggression. Sadly, the predictions that there would be a difference among the type of aggression and how a by-stander would feel and react were not found to be supported (see Figure 1). However, we did find that the type of aggression had an effect on the perception of whether the act was aggression or not- people were more likely to perceive overt aggression as aggression relative to relational aggression. Unfortunately, the predictions that prior exposure would account for some variance and predictive value in both intervening and punishing was not found to be supported either. Finally, emotion was not found to have a relationship with the likelihood to punish. We did not expect for most of our predictions to be rejected, but there are some promising ideas still prevalent. It is important that there is a relationship between how someone perceives aggression and the type because this can play a role in bullying. It seems from this study that relational aggression is not seen as aggression, which could help in efforts to reduce bullying. The statistical analyses we used may not have been complicated enough to reveal complex structures and relationships, but future studies could delve deeper.

Figure 1

Perception of Aggression, Likelihood to Intervene, and Desire to Punish Based  on Type of Aggression

Note. All variables were on a scale from 1-10. Perception of aggression (blue bars) differed significantly by type of aggression. The other variables did not.


Despite our results not being what we anticipated them to be, we were able to find out how people interpreted aggression. Fortunately, we did not have any problems with our research when we were no longer on campus and able to access the lab. The only difference with having to make our study online was the amount of credit the participants received. Our study took into account a wide range of variables so we could look at multiple factors that could possibly have an influence on the participants’ answers.


In conclusion, thoughts about the aggression witnessed did not seem to differ much between type of aggression, current state of emotions, or prior exposure to aggression. Some of our results might contradict other research, like our finding that prior exposure did not influence intervention or punishing, but some of our results match very well. Our study, as well as many others, found that people correctly identified overt aggression as a form of aggression. So, people know overt aggression when they see it which means you can rest assured that people are watching out for you! However, it seems relational aggression is less recognizable, which could say something about the way college students interact.


Cairns, R.B., Cairns, B.D., Neckerman, H.J., Ferguson, L.L., & Gariepy, J.-L. (1989).  Growth and aggression: I. Childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 25, 320– 330.

Casper, D. M., Card, N. A., Bauman, S., & Toomey, R. B. (2017). Overt and relational aggression participant role behavior: Measurement and relations with sociometric status and depression. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 27(3), 661–673.

Rivers, I., Poteat, V. P., Noret, N., & Ashurst, N. (2009). Observing bullying at school: The mental health implications of witness status. School Psychology Quarterly, 24(4), 211–223.

Measuring Persistence in Psychology Students

Athey Crump, Emily Giovanini, Elizabeth Helminski, Mariyana McAgy & Kojiro Leonard (Advisor: Chris Buchholz)

Background Information

What causes individuals to complete difficult tasks? Locus of control is categorized into two levels: internal and external. Individuals with internal LOC believe they have control over their environment, whilst individuals with external LOC believe their environment controls them (Killpack, 2005). After examining current literature on LOC, we discovered a gap in past research, which had looked at the relationships between LOC and motivation, competence, and self-efficacy, but not perseverance (Rotter, 1996). Our research is designed to focus on the relationship between LOC and persistence. We hypothesized that those scoring a high internal LOC would have a longer duration while those scoring a high external LOC would have a shorter duration.


In this study participants (77) were asked to solve a series of math problems. Half of the participants were led to believe they had some control over the difficulty of the math problems, while the other half were led to believe that the difficulty of the questions was random. However, the manipulation did not work due to an unforeseen error in setting up the study. As a part of this study, participants were also asked to complete a scale that measured whether they possessed more internal or external locus of control using Rotter’s scale of Locus of Control.

Results & Discussion

Data collected from the survey was run with the results from the LOC questionnaire. While there was no difference in the total number of math problems completed for external vs. internal locus of control, those who have an internal locus of control did spend more time answering questions but these results were not statistically significant, as seen in Figure 1. So, while these two groups (internal/external) completed the same number of problems, it is possible that those with an internal locus of control spent more time thinking and working on them, as can be seen in Figure 2. This makes some sense in that those with internal locus of control feel they have more control, and thus they spend more time working (i.e. persisting).

Figure 1: Internal and external locus of control on number of math problems completed.

Figure 2: Internal and external locus of control on duration of survey.


The process of conducting an experiment from start to finish provided the opportunity to put knowledge we’ve gained over the past four years into a single project. When creating an online study, we gained experience using programs like SPSS, SONA and Qualtrics. Though there were several changes that needed to be made to the study, this only allowed us the opportunity to showcase our knowledge of research skills. Though there were several challenges to overcome, this study allowed us, as students to think and act as researchers and provided the opportunity to have these skills as undergrads.

Examining How Music Affects Mood

Nina Amato, Hailey Davis, Emily Deeds, Kinsey Overfelt, Valerie Spasojevic (Advisor Chris Buchholz)

Background Information

Music has been around for centuries and it has been used in many different ways, from ceremonies, to dancing, or even to uplift the soul.  Philosophers have wondered what the purpose of music is and what it does for us.  Many people believe that music can affect their mood – we were curious about this as well and wanted to take it a step further to see if happy or sad music was able to change ones mood when combined with having a certain personality trait.  We predicted that people with a high level of Neuroticism would have their mood shifted the most due to the type of music they were listening to.  We predicted that this specific personality trait would be most likely to change their mood due to the type of music because it is said that people with the personality trait of Neuroticism tend to be emotionally unstable, which would allow their mood to shift easily.  To examine the effects, we used different tests in order to assess how a happy song and a sad song affected the moods of different personalities.  Specifically, we predicted that people having a personality high in Neuroticism will convey a happier mood in the happy music group, as well as convey a sadder mood in the sad music group.  We  also predicted that those who are low in neuroticism will not have their mood as affected by the music since they are in theory more emotionally stable individuals.


Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in the study, either listening to a happy or sad version of the same song.  Individuals then self-reported their mood via a slider scale immediately after listening to the song condition to which they were assigned.  Participants then took the Big Five Inventory (BFI) questionnaire to measure personality traits (e.g., neuroticism).

Results and Discussion

There was a significant difference between the moods of the people in the sad condition versus the happy condition (see Figure 1). Also, in line with our predictions, we found that those high in neuroticism did have a significant difference between their reactions to happy versus sad music, while this was not the case for those low in neuroticism (see Figure 2).

Figure 1: The effect of music on mood.

Figure 2: Interaction effects between music condition and neuroticism.


We experienced challenges throughout our research because we anticipated our study to be conducted in a lab setting, not completely online. We originally decided that we wanted to have an in-person study so we could ensure that individuals would listen to the song entirely and not have any distractions, however, we had to switch to an online version of our study due to the Coronavirus.  Our study also does not take into account the mood the individual was already experiencing, which could have impacted mood persuasion.


The department normally hosts a poster session to present all of the research that happens each semester; however, due to stay at home restrictions we will present student research on our blog. Over the next several days we will be posting some of the research carried out by our students here. Congratulations students for all of your hard work!

–  Chris Buchholz, Psychology Department Chair

Pie A Professor TODAY!

Today is the day. The day you get to see your professors pied! From 5pm-6pm at Sutton Terrace RCPA and Psi Chi will make your dreams come true by pieing 6 of our beloved professors for your enjoyment, all while raising money for the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention.

Pieing will occur at 5:30pm, with the opportunity for students to pay $10 to personally pie a professor of their choice. Bring your friends!

The current rankings are:

  1. Dr. Buchholz & Dr. Carter (tied for first)
  2. Dr. Findley-Van Nostrand
  3. Dr. Nichols
  4. Dr. Osterman
  5. Dr. Allen

Psychology Graduate Alexandra Ekirch Recognized by the Kiwanis Club

Alexandra Ekirch, an Officer with the Roanoke City Police Department, was recognized by the Kiwanis Club, along with her partner, for their service to the community. Officer Ekirch graduated in 2014 with a Bachelors of Science in Psychology from Roanoke College.

Alumni Reception – April 8th, 2017

The Psychology Department will be hosting an alumni reception during Alumni Weekend (Saturday, April 8th) in Lucas Library (215) and on the adjacent outdoor balcony from 4:00 to 5:30pm. We are excited to see our returning alumni at this event.

Please stop by for some drinks, snacks, and fun activities with the Psychology Department!

Get connected!

Welcome Dr. Travis Carter

Dr. Travis Carter will be joining the Psychology Department in the fall of 2017 as our newest Tenure-Track Assistant Professor of Social Psychology. He received his PhD from Cornell University and then worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Decision Research at the University of Chicago. Most recently he worked as an Assistant Professor at Colby College in Maine.

At Roanoke College, Dr. Carter will teach Quantitative Methods, Social Psychology, and will eventually design new courses in the Social-Personality domain. He has conducted research in the areas of judgement and decision making, social cognition, and consumer behavior, focusing on the internal and external forces that produce biased judgments. For instance, one study examined the effects of accusations of bias on Major League Baseball umpires’ subsequent ball and strike calls. We are excited to have Dr. Carter join the Department!

Welcome Dr. Danielle Findley-Van Nostrand

Dr. Danielle Findley-Van Nostrand will be joining the Psychology Department in the fall of 2017 as our newest Tenure-Track Assistant Professor of Developmental Psychology. She comes to us from the University of South Florida in Tampa, where she completed her PhD and holds a Post-Doctoral position in STEM education.

At Roanoke College, Dr. Findley-Van Nostrand will teach courses in Developmental Psychology. Her research is interdisciplinary and focuses on social experiences and their relation to the self and adjustment in adolescents and young adults. We are excited to have Dr. Findley-Van Nostrand join the Department!

Trains Built Roanoke. Science Saved It.


For an interesting story of the history of Roanoke, Virginia and how the city was saved through science, click here.

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Instagram & Twitter:  #PsychRC @RC_Psychology
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Welcome back students


Everyone in the Psychology Department is excited to begin a new academic year. We want to welcome our new students, as well as our returning majors, minors, and students in concentrations.

You will notice a few changes in the Department this year. First, we have two new faculty members joining us this year: Dr. Athena Buckthought (cognitive neuroscience) and Dr. Laura Mills-Smith (developmental psychology). Please give them a warm welcome when you return. Second, you may noticed some upgrades to the classrooms, new hallway furniture, and our new Student Computer Lounge across from the elevator.

We are looking forward to working with all of you to make it a great year! Stay tuned to our blog and facebook page for upcoming events and opportunities.

Get involved

 Get connected

 Student Resources

Alumni Weekend Departmental Reception

The Psychology Department will be having an alumni reception over Alumni Weekend (Saturday, April 9th) on the outdoor balcony of Lucas Hall (2nd floor) from 4:00 to 5:30pm. (Rain Location: Lucas 215)

Please stop by for some drinks, snacks, and fun activities with the Psychology Department!  1-DSC_1732Contact Chris Buchholz (, 540-375-4904) for more information.

Get connected!


Interested in a Psychology Internship?

Internship image

This is a great time to start planning for Spring, 2016.

Check out the internship guidelines on Psychology’s website!

Make an appointment with the Internship Coordinator by signing up for an appointment or emailing:

Internship Coordinator:

Dr. Mary Camac

Office 517 Life Science

Congratulations Dr. Early on your coming retirement!

chuck and pie


Congratulations Dr. Early on your retirement! We will all miss you greatly!

The following is the resolution read at the last faculty meeting for Dr. Charles Early:

We the members of the faculty, staff and Trustees of Roanoke College rise to give tribute to and offer the following resolution honoring Dr. Charles Edgar Early, Professor of Psychology, for his long and distinguished service of 27 years to the Department of Psychology, to thousands of his students and to the entire Roanoke
College community.

Whereas, seeing little usefulness in dropping nuclear weapons on our foes, Chuck wisely decided that using psychology to communicate with the enemy and feeling their pain would be a better approach. Thus, he resigned from the Air Force and
began to pursue graduate studies in psychology. It is wise to remember he served as a Major in the U.S. Air Force as a ground traffic controller of fighter jets and also maintained nuclear targeting dossiers on the locations of various Soviet Generals,
and he earned his black belt in Tae Kwan Do style karate in Korea therefore it may be best we not get on the black-list he might still maintain.

Whereas, Chuck earned many academic degrees culminating in a Ph.D. from Penn State and attended the Air Command Intelligence School twice, we can be certain that he is indeed, by Air force and any other standard, intelligent.

Whereas, after Chuck relinquished his position as chair after years of distinguished service, his successor Dr. Ronda Carpenter referred to him as her first officer in the administration of the department. He has maintained this capacity as a fountain of administrative wisdom to all subsequent chairs of our department. His wise counsel
will be missed.

Whereas, Chuck’ history of psychology course has been recognized as a tough rite of passage for majors, it has spurred students to nominate him for the College-wide teaching award. He has led many students to succeed because he believed in them.  His advising success is a model for others in the department. Chuck is clearly well loved by his students who gave him an A+ rating on They also awarded him a hubba-hubba chili pepper and likened him to Richard Gere.

Whereas, Chuck has been a life-long aficionado of the writings of Edgar Rice Burroughs, we hope that he can make use of a portion of his retirement to explore the curious psychology of the feral child Earl John Clayton Greystoke, AKA “Tarzan.” Another interest of Chuck’s is amateur astronomy, and he has attended several
annual Texas Star Parties near Fort Davis, Texas, in the fantastically dark skies where the light from the Milky Way casts your shadow on the ground. We wish him many dark and clear skies in future Texas Star Party events.

Whereas, Chuck still works out even now at retirement age, can do chin-ups and out bench press weights not achievable by the majority of RC campus’ student body, faculty and staff. We wish him continued good health and physical strength to endure the rigors of retirement. We also hope he will send us “selfies”.

Whereas, Chuck is legendary as the person who never skipped desserts, it is known that his very favorite pie flavor of all time is Apple, Peach, Cherry, Pumpkin and Blueberry. Peanut butter pie need not apply. He and a former colleague, coined the term “piece-let” to refer to small slices of pie or cake that would reasonably be
conjoined into a “piece” of dessert. In fact, Chuck has used his conditioning techniques, taught in learning, to ensure that any department member who attends Commons lunch uses their carryout item as a dessert for Chuck when we are not
graced with his lunchtime presence.

Whereas, he retains his classic comic book collection, we hope that these increase in value over the years comparably to the original Superman comic book was recently auctioned at eBay for 3.2 million dollars. These can accompany his collection of over 3000 significant books in his hand-made beautiful bookcases in his living room and office.

Whereas, Chuck is the model of a Renaissance man who has taught 20 different courses, written a book, published 22 papers, 16 reviews of chapters or books, and made 49 significant presentations and co-editing of a massive “Pictorial history of Psychology.” Now that Chuck plans to move to the Savannah, GA area to be nearer
his daughter, a successful Roanoke College alumna, we reveal that one unit of the bookcases in his home office swings aside to reveal a secret room. Dr. Pranzarone has been sworn not to reveal what Chuck kept in this formerly secret room, so it is incumbent upon friends of Chuck to communicate with him frequently if they hope
that this information be divulged. We suspect superhero powers are at play.

Whereas, it is noted that while Charles is retiring, suspiciously coincident with the retirement of his colleague Dr. Jan H Lynch, we will no longer see that they quite frequently departed the department at the same time arm-in-arm. Rumors will now
cease as they are separated to divergent parts of the United States.
Whereas, Chuck is often looked to for guidance, wisdom, and calm; we will use key quotes of his to keep his spirit alive in the department: “Students are our motivation.” and “We are first and foremost a teaching college; let us not forget.”

Whereas, we all here as part of the Roanoke College family have greatly benefited from the friendship, warmth, sincerity, gentle good humor of this tall fellow, be it then resolved that we all wish him health, clear skies and fair weather in his retirement from professorship at Roanoke College; that he be granted long life and
prosperity and that his curiosity and drive for life-long learning never be diminished.

Therefore, it so resolved that these comments be then entered into the official minutes of the Meeting of the Faculty of Roanoke College in gratitude and celebration of the life and career of Dr. Charles Edgar Early.



Band of Professors


Professors Rich Grant (Physics), Mike Maina (Human Health and Performance), and Chris Buchholz (Psychology) will be playing covers from the 60’s to current hits at Parkway Brewing Co. Thursday April 23rd from 4:00-8:00pm.

Check them out at


Psychology Department Just Dance Party

By popular demand. Almost everyone got into the dance party. Almost everyone.

The annual Psychology Department Just Dance Party has been scheduled! Join us to dance or watch on Wednesday April 29 from 2 to 3:30 in Life Sciences room 515. We really hope to see the psychology seniors there, but everyone is welcome, no matter your major. Local alums are welcome also. And we particularly welcome anyone who can beat reigning champion Dr. David Nichols.
See what we mean?

UVA undergraduate psychology conference


If you have research you have worked on as an Independent Study or in Research Seminar in the last year, you should consider submitting to the UVA psychology undergraduate conference (see below).

To:  Undergraduate Psychology Students

Re:  L. Starling Reid Undergraduate Psychology Research Conference

Abstract proposals for oral or poster presentations may be submitted until March 9, 2015 for the Reid Undergraduate Psychology Research Conference at U.Va.  To register and for further information visit  Information there includes:

  • who may present
  • proposal selection process
  • abstract guidelines.

The keynote lecture will be “How Emotions are Made” by Lisa Feldman Barrett, PhD., University Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Director of the Interdisciplinary Affective Science Laboratory (IASLab) at Northeastern University.

Modest funds to defray some travel expenses may be available for out-of-state presenters.

We look forward to receiving your conference presentation proposal.


John B. Rudder

Undergraduate Coordinator

U.Va. Department of Psychology


Welcome Dr. Darcey Powell to the Psychology Department!

Powell Headshot 3The Psychology Department is proud to announce our newest faculty member, Assistant Professor Darcey Powell! Dr. Powell joined the department in 2014 and has worked as a Visiting Assistant Professor for the last year.  She received a B.S. in Psychology (’09) from West Virginia University, a M.S. (’11) from West Virginia University and a Ph.D. (’14 ) in Life-Span Developmental Psychology from West Virginia University. Her research interests include examining the expectations of emerging adults about future adult roles, such as parenting, as well as parents’ expectations for and perceptions of their experience caring for a young child. She is also interested in research related to teaching and learning; exploring methods to increase students’ retention of material and application of skills, as well as examining differences between subjective and objective evaluations of instructors’ teaching style.

Please welcome Dr. Powell to the Department as our newest tenure-track member!

Carilion Clinic Career Focus Dinner

November 6, 4:30-7pm

Location: off-campus site TBD

Large health care organizations offer a variety of opportunities for employment, internships, and research to students in many majors – Business, social sciences, and healthcare related fields. Come and hear from one of our local health care systems – Carilion Clinic – about such opportunities, as this could be useful in looking for similar settings in other locations. Registration is required by Thursday, October 30, through Career Services. This program takes place off-campus and includes dinner at no cost. Rides are available if desired or needed. For more information, contact Career Services.

For more information contact: Toni McLawhorn (540) 375-2303