All posts by Chris Buchholz

Paranoia and Attitudes on Covid-19 Health Guidance

Alise Bennett, Savannah Brown, Emily Gabrielian, & Alyssa Mattson (Advisor: Dr. Chris Buchholz)


A little over a year ago, our world was quickly turned upside down once the news broke that we were heading into a global pandemic due to the coronavirus. With the rise of the pandemic, we also saw a rise in beliefs in conspiracy theories related to the coronavirus. COVID-19 skepticism became extremely present across the United States as some people demonstrated that they did not believe in the seriousness of the virus or that the pandemic was a hoax (Latkin et al., 2021). Recent research has demonstrated that COVID-19 skepticism is strongly associated with a decrease in engagement in COVID-19 prevention behaviors, such as isolating at home, social distancing, and wearing a face mask (Latkin et al., 2021).

Additionally, the research conducted on COVID-19 skepticism noted that the skepticism was associated with political conservation because there was a relationship between the sources of news that individuals consumed, the negative attitudes towards government spending on public health, and believing in conspiracy theories (Latkin et al., 2021). This current study aims to examine the relationship between paranoia levels and compliance in COVID-19 guidelines, such as wearing facial coverings and social distancing, in order to better understand the conspiracy theories surrounding the coronavirus. The possible limitations that may be present throughout this study are that we used a convenience sample from the Roanoke College student population, meaning that our data is not representative of the general population. Additionally, it is possible that when we were analyzing the data that we overlooked certain responses that may have been associated with the objective of the study. Overall, the findings of this study may reveal how paranoia contributes to these greater sociological problems as well as how to effectively address conspiratorial thinking as it affects our daily lives.


Participants. 96 participants were sourced from either INQ-260 Psychology or Psychology 101 classes at Roanoke College. The students were notified about the survey through SONA, a subject pool software, and were given credit for completing the survey thoroughly and fully.

Materials. We used a survey platform called Qualtrics to build and conduct the following survey:

  • Experimental condition: Participants were assigned to one of two conditions: an experimental condition (a short video from John Hopkins University on COVID-19 vaccinations), or a control condition (a short video from Harvard University on mindfulness.)

Following the video, all participants were directed to the main survey:

  • Paranoia scale: a 10-item scale assessing paranoid tendencies.
  • Dark triad scale (Jonastan and Webster, 2010): a 12-item scale assessing the three dark triad traits, such as narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy.
  • Covid Compliance scale: an 11-item scale created based on the Health Belief Model assessing compliance with COVID-19 public health guidance. Additional questions included whether participants had previously contacted COVID-19 and their access to protective measures.

Procedure. The survey was live for a roughly three-week period. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions (videos). After finishing the video, participants will move on to the questionnaire part of the survey. In this section, participants will answer a series of questions ranging from personality and paranoia to questions regarding COVID-19 prevention practices engaged in. At the end of the survey, participants were given the option to redirect to another survey to enter personal information to receive credit. Following the data collection period, data was analyzed and interpreted by our group.


A 2 x 2 between-subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of paranoia on compliance with COVID-19 public health guidance. It was predicted that participants who viewed the vaccination video would be more likely to respond positively to questions relating to compliance with COVID-19 guidelines. A second hypothesis suggested that those who score high in paranoia will score low in compliance to COVID-19, given a perceived tendency towards conspiratorial thinking and a resulting mistrust or disbelief in the effectiveness of COVID-19 preventative measures.

Our results indicated that the experimental condition (watching the John Hopkins University on COVID-19 vaccinations) did not significantly improve compliance with COVID-19 guidelines. As shown in Figure 1, those low in paranoia did show increased compliance with COVID-19 preventative measures; however, this difference was not statistically significant.

Figure 1. Experimental condition and paranoia on compliance with COVID-19 public health guidance.

Between both experimental conditions, narcissism and psychopathy were two dark personality traits found to be significant in compliance with COVID-19 guidelines. Those scoring high in narcissism were most likely to report low compliance with COVID-19 public health guidance (see Figure 2). Similarly, those high in trait psychopathy had much lower compliance with COVID-19 protective measures (see Figure 3).

Figure 2. Experimental condition and paranoia on compliance with COVID-19 public health guidance.

Figure 3. Psychopathy and paranoia on compliance with COVID-19 public health guidance.

While our main hypotheses could not be confirmed by this study, our exploratory variables yielded results in line with our predictions. One may attribute our findings to the multiple ways in which paranoia might play out given the context of COVID-19. For example, someone scoring high in paranoia may score low in compliance given a mistrust in these guidelines, or high in compliance given anxiety around contracting the virus. Regarding our experimental conditions, perhaps a short video, regardless of context, is not a “strong enough” stimulus to influence how people would respond to survey questions relating to an event such as COVID-19.

In contrast, our findings suggest that individuals high in narcissism and psychopathy are more likely to disregard COVID-19 public health guidance, in line with behaviors generally observed from individuals with these traits. In the case of narcissism, a preoccupation with one’s own interests, regardless of the consequences or harm it may cause others, may explain this relationship. A general disregard for others and their safety may characterize this relationship as applied to psychopathy.


After completing this assignment, as a group, we have a better understanding of research methods overall. While we have participated in other experiments, now we more fully grasp how to design an experiment, clean and analyze data, and write formally for research. Essentially, this class allowed for the hands-on application of the knowledge we learned over our college careers. Additionally, we believe that it may be beneficial if this study was replicated in order to see if our results would be significant or stay the same. It is certainly possible that our participants were only completing our survey for credit in their course, which may have resulted in students not taking the time to provide complete answers to our questions.


The main findings of this study indicate that the Roanoke College students that participated in the survey demonstrated that paranoia had an effect on compliance to COVID-19 guidelines; however, this finding was not significant. Additional findings indicate that the relationship between both experimental conditions and the two dark personalities (narcissism and psychopathy) and compliance to COVID-19 guidelines was found to be significant. Moving forward, academic institutions may be interested in expanding upon this study in order to further understand the association between beliefs in conspiracy theories about COVID-19 and paranoia in order to see if there is a significant relationship. Additionally, it would be very interesting if academic institutions also conducted future studies on the association between narcissism and psychopathy and beliefs in conspiracy theories about COVID-19.


Latkin, C. A., Dayton, L., Moran, M., Strickland, J. C., & Collins, K. (2021). Behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with COVID-19 skepticism in the United States. Current Psychology, 1-9. doi: 10.1007/s12144-020-01211-3.

The Effects of Music Genres on Aggression

Luke Harbison, MaryDrew Collier, Hunter Andrews,  and                    Alice Chandler (Advisor: Dr. Buchholz)

Background Information

Why are people inclined to form mosh pits at heavy music concerts (Thrash, Death Metal etc.) but wouldn’t at something like a Barry Manilow concert? Do various genres have respectively different effects on human emotions and behavior?  Prior research studies have investigated these questions with findings supporting the supposed answer. Some studies show heavier music made subjects more likely to report negative feelings while other studies demonstrated that songs with negative lyrical content can make people report a higher frequency of aggression (Shafron & Karno, 2013; Anderson & Carnagey, 2003). In this study, we predicted the conditions of aggressive music (Drowning Pool-Bodies) or soft music (Claude DeBussy-Clair De Lune) would produce different results of aggression levels, specifically a greater level when listening to aggressive music compared to soft and no music conditions. Our study specifically focused on state aggression rather than trait aggression, while also taking gender differences into account (male, female) to look for possible interactions. The key aspect of this study revolves around examining participant’s current aggression levels.  By examining the participants’ current levels, we should gather results on the immediate effect music has on a person.


Our study was conducted entirely online. We created a survey on the website Qualtrics and received our participant pool by providing class credit for people in introductory-level psychology courses through a website called SONA. The survey respondents listened to one of three music clips: clip 1 being no music, clip 2 being Clair De Lune by Claude DeBussy, a representation of soft music, and clip 3 being Bodies by Drowning Pool, a representation of aggressive music. Respondents then answered questions related to their current emotional state, particularly how aggressive they felt. Results were put into a Jamovi where it was analyzed. In addition, we also asked respondents to tell us their gender (male and female) so we could look for possible interactions. We had two other gender selections (prefer not to say, non-binary) but they were not used in the analysis.

Results and Discussion

In order to evaluate the effects of gender and music genres on aggression, a 2 (male/female) x 3 (no music, easy listening, and aggressive music) between-subjects analysis of variance was conducted. There were 15 questions related to aggression and 5 related to negative feelings in general. Our analysis found that there was no difference in aggression level across the three groups. We did find a difference between men and women but it was not found to be significantly different. Additionally, we found no interaction between the main groups.

We anticipated that there would be significant findings, but our results show the likelihood of no change in aggression level being present.  However, other potential factors are present including the music clips being too short or respondents not paying attention and rushing through the survey. Although females reported higher levels of aggression, this could be affected by other factors that weren’t accounted for. While we did not have any significant findings, this information could benefit future researchers who want to examine aggression and its relationship to music. If this study were to be conducted in the future, we could potentially lengthen music clips and control the setting of where the survey is being taken at. Ultimately, we found no strong evidence that aggressive music poses a difference in state aggression in comparison to no music and soft music.

Figure 1. The effects of music genres on aggression.

Figure 2. The effects of gender on aggression.

Figure 3. The interaction between gender and music genres.


Based on this study’s findings, we can conclude that our hypothesis was not supported. In examining the possible reasons for this, we determined there are multiple possibilities. The phenomena of mosh pits may be related to other factors such as drinking and the influence of people being around other people who are all in a highly stimulating environment. Additionally, our study had flaws that could result in missing the real effect that could be present. Our findings do not firmly guarantee that no effect occurs, conducting a different study could potentially identify it. Another important piece of information that we learned was how complex the process of creating a study, getting the study approved, gathering respondents, and compiling data all truly was. Going forward, researchers in the fields of musicology and the behavioral sciences may be able to use our research to examine the phenomena of music genres on behavior even further than us.


Anderson C.A., Carnagey N.L. (2003). Exposure to Violent Media: The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 84(5), 960-71. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.5.960

Shafron, G.R., & Karno, M.P. (2013). Heavy metal music and emotional dysphoria among listeners. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 2(2), 74-85. doi: 10.1037/a0031722.



Can You Control It?

Curtis Kingery, Lauren Powell, and Alex Upright (Advisor: Dr. Buchholz)

Background Information

“Genius Grant” award winner Angela Duckworth recently asked, “What is the single most significant choice a human being can make in their life?” Distinguished Psychology researcher David Buss responded, “The selection of a long-term mate.” Since he is esteemed for research in human mating, he might be biased to answer that way. However, it is undeniable that mating is a critical part of human existence. In mate selection, most traits and qualities are considered essential by both sexes (e.g., kind, trustworthy, intelligent), yet some traits are prioritized more by one sex than the other. These differences in preferences on traits most valued in an opposite-sex partner are well documented, along with an evolutionary rationale for their existence. On average, men disproportionately favor youthfulness and physical attractiveness in female mates. Women’s preferences show an asymmetry, on average, towards a man’s ability to acquire resources (Buss, 1989; Li et al., 2002; Walter et al., 2020). These traits may vary in one’s ability to control them. That is, there may be a significant difference between the ability to control one’s level of attractiveness versus the amount of control one has over their earning potential. Prior research on this topic found just that. Traits highly associated with female mate value are perceived as less controllable, by females, relative to traits highly associated with male mate value—and their perceived controllability by men (Ben Hamida et al., 1998). However, there is individual variation within the sexes on how they perceive their control over these traits. That is, males will vary in the extent to which they perceive control over characteristics suggestive of resource acquisition ability. We sought to account for these individual differences, generally, in perceived controllability of traits and, specifically, on critical mating dimensions. (Mis)perceptions of control could inform our understanding of documented differences in human behavior between males and females.


Participants were recruited from a pool of current students attending Roanoke College through the College’s Psychology department SONA system, primarily students enrolled in PSYC 101 or INQ260-PY who were eligible for extra credit received a half-credit as compensation for the participation. There were 26 male participants and 69 female participants, for a total of 95 participants who completed the study.

Our survey was administered using Qualtrics where participants were asked to respond to a variety of different scales, including the Locus of Control, the Scale for Intrasexual Competition (specified for either male or female, depending on the participant’s indicated gender) and a controllability questionnaire. Participants in the manipulation group were shown eight images, one of a person’s body ‘before’ working out and getting fit, and the second of the same person’s body ‘after’ working out. This particular manipulation was used in order to explore the possibility of intervention where countermessaging could increase people’s perceptions of control of traits that they wish to improve. Participants were also asked demographic questions such as gender identity and sexual orientation.

Results and Discussion

We expected to find a relationship between one’s level of intrasexual competitiveness and their perceived controllability of myriad traits. Although the relationship wasn’t strong enough to make any reliable conclusions, we did see a reduction in perceived controllability as participants, on average, increased in intrasexual competitiveness. See figure 1.

Figure 1: The effect of intrasexual competitiveness and sex on self-perceived controllability

Figure 1 implies that as one focuses more on competing with same-sex peers for mates, their perceptions of control over their traits could be influenced by that preoccupation.

Similarly, we expected our experimental manipulation, where half of the participants saw body transformation images, to increase that group’s average perception of controllability. We did not find evidence for this relationship. This could mean that our manipulation wasn’t strong enough or it could imply that perceptions of controllability may be stable traits within individuals that are unlikely to be influenced in this manner.

As predicted, we did find that males and females, on average, showed substantial differences in their general perceptions of controllability of traits. See figure 2.

Figure 2: Self-perceived controllability of traits by sex

Moreover, we found a statistically significant result for differences in males’ and females’ perceptions of controllability, specifically on the dimensions regarded as critical to men when choosing a female mate. That is, traits related to youthfulness and attractiveness were considered more controllable by men than women. There was no evidence for these sex differences on perceptions of controllability for resource acquisition traits. These sex differences in perceptions of controllability could inform our understanding of behaviors that show increased or decreased occurrence in one sex versus the other (e.g., mate preferences, risk-taking, aggression, jealousy, and several psychological disorders such as depression and eating disorders).


Unfortunately, while we were unable to find a strong enough relationship between competitiveness and controllability to make any conclusions, we were still able to determine a statistically significant difference in males’ and females’ perception of how well they can control their youthfulness and attractiveness.


We are all different people with different experiences and lives. There is no need to stress unnecessarily about being as attractive or successful as possible for fear of missing out on the perfect spouse. There is no need to compare yourself to others or feel that you must complete with them to find “the perfect mate.” Be patient, focus on the things that will not be changed by time, such as humor or personality, and make sure that you can be the best you can be, and the right person will be there at the right time.


Ben Hamida, S., Mineka, S., & Bailey, J. M. (1998). Sex differences in perceived controllability of mate value: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(4), 953–966.

Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 1–14. doi:10.1017/ S0140525X00023992

Li, N. P., Bailey, J. M., Kenrick, D. T., & Linsenmeier, J. A. W. (2002). The necessities and luxuries of mate preferences: Testing the tradeoffs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 947–955.

Walter, K. V., Conroy-Beam, D., Buss, D. M., Asao, K., Sorokowska, A., Sorokowski, P., Aavik, T., Akello, G., Alhabahba, M. M., Alm, C., Amjad, N., Anjum, A., Atama, C. S., Atamtürk Duyar, D., Ayebare, R., Batres, C., Bendixen, M., Bensafia, A., Bizumic, B., … Zupančič, M. (2020). Sex differences in mate preferences across 45 countries: A large-scale replication. Psychological Science, 31(4), 408–423.



Has COVID-19 Impacted Introverts’ School Performance More Adversely Than Extraverts’?

Autumn Cox, Christian Galleo, & Celine Taylor (Advisor: Chris Buchholz)

Background Information

Our study investigated how COVID-19 suddenly reshaped the school environment and whether this change has influenced introverts’ and extraverts’ perceived performance differently. While previous research from Teichner, Areess, and Reilly (1963) has examined the relationship between one’s degree of extraversion and the impact noise has on performance, there has been little research into how COVID-19 has modified today’s learning environment. This study intended to examine the auditory changes COVID-19 has had on the work environment and how this has affected introverts’ and extroverts’, and their perceived performance. We hypothesized that introverts would be more adversely affected by their home’s auditory environment and that they would have a larger decrease in perceived performance from pre-COVID-19 to the present. Meanwhile, we predicted that extraverts would not be as adversely affected by the auditory environment and may even display a slight increase in their perceived performance compared to their pre-COVID-19 perceived performance rating.


Ninety-four participants from Roanoke College completed our online survey. Participants completed measures of introversion/extroversion, as well as a Perceived Performance Questionnaire, Change in Auditory Environment Questionnaire, and a Noise Sensitivity Questionnaire (measures how sensitive an individual is to auditory disruptions while working). Many of these scales were created to evaluate how variables such as auditory environment and perceived performance changed from before COVID-19 to now, so that we can examine whether perceived performance has been negatively impacted by environmental changes.

Results & Discussion

Our analysis revealed that our results supported several of our hypotheses; college students indicated that not only had their auditory environment become more distracting but that their performance had worsened during the COVID-19 crisis (see Figure 1). When evaluating the relationship between time period (Pre-COVID-19, Post-COVID-19), perceived performance, and auditory environment, we found that both perceived performance and auditory environment were negatively impacted by COVID-19. This indicates that COVID-19 is responsible for increasing the amount of auditory disturbances that are experienced while working and that it has also decreased students’ perceived performance.

Figure 1. The effect that time period has on auditory environment and perceived performance

Our results also supported our prediction that introverts would be more sensitive to noise disturbances, and that introverts would also have lower levels of post-COVID-19 perceived performance than extraverts would. A possible explanation for the poorer performance may be that introverts are more sensitive to noise disturbances, which means that an increase in auditory disruptions, caused by COVID-19, would result in this group’s poorer perceived performance. This supports Eysenck’s theory of personality, which theorizes that introverts’ performance would be more adversely affected by, in this case, their sensitivity to noise disturbances than extroverts would be (Eysenck, 1997). Therefore, the more sensitive an introvert (i.e. high introversion) is to noise the worse their perceived performance is, but the more sensitive an extravert (i.e. low introversion) is to noise the better their perceived performance is (see Figure 2). Overall, our results indicate that the current school environment has been detrimental to the introvert’s perceived school performance and should be changed.

Figure 2. The effect that introversion level has on an individual’s noise sensitivity and perceived performance after COVID-19.


The data collection process was a limitation because we could only obtain participants through Roanoke College’s SONA system which limited our pool of participants. Our limitations also included a lack of accessible research, the convenience sample, and the necessity to develop many of our own measures. Although there is very little research available, we learned how greatly COVID-19 has impacted the work and school environment and believe that further efforts should be made to understand the impacts of this ongoing pandemic.


Our results indicate that the new work environment, initiated by COVID-19, has not adversely affected extraverts and their perceived performance, which suggests that they may be able to continue functioning in this work environment after the conclusion of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, our results also indicate that the new work environment has brought on higher levels of auditory distractions into the work environment, which have negatively impacted introverts and their perceived performance. Our results indicate that, as COVID-19 comes to a close, employers and schools should give introverts the opportunity to return to their work environment and to work in a quieter environment that maximizes their performance.


Eysenck, H. J. (1977). Personality and factor analysis: A reply to Guilford. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 405-411.

Teichner, W. H., Arees, E. & Reilly, R. (1963). Noise and human performance, a psychological approach. Ergonomics, 6, 83-97.

The Effects of Covid-19 and Social Isolation on Depression and Daily Stress

Aaron Rogers, Vanessa Pearson, Courtney Ashley, & Ayars Lamar (Advisor: Chris Buchholz) 

Background Information

Humans are in fact social beings by nature—in addition to food and water, we also need social interaction to be healthy. For instance, research shows that that social isolation can lead to an increase in mental disorders (Santini et al., 2020). When considering the Covid-19 pandemic, we have seen a divide between individuals through the promotion of social distancing and the temporary closure of recreational businesses such as movie theaters and amusement parks. Institutions have implemented guidelines that have affected college students to limit the spread of the virus on campus. These guidelines are seen in various ways such as online teaching, social distancing of 6 feet in food courts, and the elimination of sporting events. These necessary precautions from institutions to prevent the spread of Covid-19 have also decreased social connectivity. The point of this study is to determine if increased social isolation causes increased levels of depression and daily stress in college students.  There is limited research on the effects of social isolation from the pandemic on college students.


Our study included 52 college students as participants. In order to run the study, we had participants complete three questions on depression, daily stress, and social isolation. The participants went through each of the scales twice. The first time the participants completed the section, they had to reflect on how they remember themselves feeling before Covid struck around January of 2020. Once the participants completed each section reflecting back to January, they were given the exact same questionnaire but asked to answer it with how they are feeling now in the current semester. Researchers then compared their answers pre-Covid to how they were feeling post-Covid.

Results and Discussion

We found that both social isolation and daily stress increased during the pandemic; however, only the increase in stress was statistically significant (see Figure 1). We also found that depression showed an increase that was statistically significant from pre-Covid compared to post-Covid. (see Figure 2). This indicates, that contrary to our predictions, on average participants were not reporting significant increases in social isolation. However, this is an average and the reality is that some participants did see an increase. In conclusion, the increase in depression and stress is consistent with larger national trends and that is concerning.

Figure 1. Social Isolation and Daily Stress over time.

Figure 2.  Depression levels from pre-Covid to post-Covid.


As a group, and individually, we have learned a lot about this pandemic and how it has affected the college-aged population in terms of depression and stress levels. A new normal has been set for the foreseeable future and that has been a tough pill to swallow for the Roanoke College community and for the entire world. All of us are upper-level college students, so we have seen the contrast between in-person schooling and online schooling, and it is not the same. We empathize with the new freshman because they may not have some of the same college experiences that we once had in a pre-pandemic world. Conducting this study and analyzing the data gave us an idea of how our community is feeling, and we cannot stress how important maintaining your mental health during these times are.


We would like people to realize how important it is to stay connected and to check up on each other during these extremely tough times. Being socially isolated has major effects on the psyche and realizing that is so important. Check in on your friends, family members, significant others, and try not to assume that everyone is doing okay during these times because more than likely someone is struggling.


Santini, Z. I., Jose, P. E., Cornwell, E. Y., Koyanagi, A., Nielsen, L., Hinrichsen, C., Meilstrup, C., Madsen, K. R., & Koushede, V. (2020). Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and symptoms of depression and anxiety among older Americans: A longitudinal mediation analysis. The lancet public health, 5(1), e62-e70.

Associations of Attachment Style and Romantic Relationship Satisfaction

Rachel Harmon, Emily Jones, Carter Smith, Shannon Blair Snyder, Kayleigh Walker

 (Advisor: Dr. Findley-Van Nostrand)

Background Information

There have been many studies conducted on attachment styles (i.e., characteristic ways of emotionally connecting with others) between parents and their children, and studies performed to evaluate romantic relationship satisfaction, but there are few studies combining the two concepts in young adults (Xia et al., 2018). Attachment style is developed through an individual internalizing their relationship, or lack thereof, with a primary caregiver in infancy and early childhood (Searle & Meara, 1999). We wanted to look at whether attachment style is associated with emerging adults’ current romantic relationship satisfaction. We also explored additional variables such as gender and length of the relationship. We chose to focus on individuals in emerging adulthood for several reasons. First, it is during this formative stage individuals are considering life-changing decisions regarding education, friendships, careers, and romantic relationships (Arnett, 2000). Second, romantic relationships in this stage differ from those experienced in adolescence because they tend to be longer in duration and more serious in intention (Arnett, 2000). Finally, little research has been done on emerging adults’ romantic relationships and our research can provide insight into this newly defined developmental stage.


Participants in our study were students from Roanoke College who were at least 18 years old and in a committed romantic relationship. Participants for this study were recruited through the Roanoke College Psychology Department via SONA, as well as within the greater campus community. Participants who were enrolled in a psychology course received a half SONA credit for participating. Eighty-five total participants completed the study.

Our study was an online survey through Qualtrics. Participants were asked to answer questions regarding gender, gender of their partner, their sexuality, age, relationship length, whether they and their significant other have “taken a break” and if so, the number of “breaks” they’ve taken. To measure attachment style, we used the 36-item Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Questionnaire. Scores on the ECR-R were calculated to reflect overall attachment insecurity, and anxious- and avoidant-attachment security as subscales. For relationship satisfaction, we used the 32-item Couple Satisfaction Index.

 Results and Discussion

          As expected, participants with secure attachment style reported higher relationship satisfaction (see Figure below- low scores on the ECR-R indicate more secure attachment). Also as expected, attachment-related anxiousness and attachment-related avoidance explained a pretty large amount of relationship satisfaction. Contrary to expectations, the association between attachment style and relationship satisfaction was stronger for participants who identified as male compared to participants who identified as female. Additionally, participants who reported higher levels of attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance had been in their current romantic relationship for a shorter-duration compared to participants with secure attachment. However, participants who had been with their current romantic partner for a longer amount of time reported higher levels of romantic relationship satisfaction. Participants who had not previously broken up with their current romantic partner also recorded significantly higher levels of relationship satisfaction compared to those who had previously broken up or “taken a break”.

Romantic relationships are an important part of emerging adulthood (Arnett, 2000). The results of the current study indicate that attachment style may influence satisfaction within romantic relationships during this phase of development. The results expand upon previous literature by investigating these associations specifically in emerging adulthood, while exploring the additional factors of gender, relationship duration and whether couples had previously broken up or “taken a break”.


This research process has been one that challenged us all in various ways throughout the semester. The first obstacle we faced was developing a study that interested us all and was relevant to the course. Our original goal with this study was to have the Roanoke College student and their significant other complete the survey in person. Requiring both the SONA student and their significant other to complete an in-person questionnaire limited our pool of students to those in relationships with a peer and those in a relationship with someone who is local. This meant that students who are in long distance relationships, and who may have had a lot to offer the research, were unable to partake in it. The original goal with having both individuals in a relationship complete the survey was to be able examine relationship satisfaction and attachment style within a relationship.

We originally decided to make this an in-person survey to increase validity. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the transition to remote learning, our study had to be switched to online only. With this new requirement of the study having to be online, we had to re-evaluate our methods. We changed the study requirement of both partners needing to complete it, to only surveying one partner. This increased the number of students who could participate in our study, which we believe improved our sample size. Conducting the study online may have eliminated any response bias that would have occurred in the lab because originally they would have been taking the survey across from their significant other, and may have felt pressure or guilt to respond a certain way, which could have altered their initial thoughts or feelings. Overall, working remotely on this has been challenging and time consuming. Having to completely rethink our study methods and then communicate with one another via WIFI when two group members have poor connection was difficult. We no longer had the option to meet whenever was convenient and work on the data analyses as a group. We instead had to find time where we could all video chat and then have one person screen share, running analyses, while the others watched. In the end, switching to online research was beneficial because we were able to broaden our pool of participants, adjust our research in an efficient way, and find significant associations.


          The main finding of our study indicates that the attachment style is associated with romantic relationship satisfaction. It is important to remember that attachment styles begin forming soon after birth and continue to evolve through the lifespan (Searle & Meara, 1999). While attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance were found to be significantly associated with romantic relationship satisfaction, we were also able to conclude that male romantic relationship satisfaction is somewhat more likely to be dependent upon attachment style in comparison to females.


Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469-480. 1037/0003-066X.55.5.469

Searle, B., & Meara, N. M. (1999). Affective dimensions of attachment styles: Exploring self-reported attachment style, gender, and emotional experience among college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46(2), 147–158.         1037/0022-0167.46.2.147

Xia, M., Fosco, G., Lippold, M., & Feinberg, M. (2018). A developmental perspective on young adult romantic relationships: Examining family and individual factors in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(7), 1499-1516.  doi:10.1007/s10964-018-0815-8

Does Art Affect Our Self-Certainty?

Ashley Rioux, Jordyn Markle, and Dionne Liberia

(Advisor: Dr. Danielle Findley-Van Nostrand)

How well do you really know yourself? Limited research has been done on the relationship between creativity and self-concept clarity. There is some evidence that people who have reached a higher status of identity are more likely to be creative while the antithesis is true for those in lower stages of identity development (Dollinger, Dollinger, & Centeno 2005). As the identity crisis is a common problem in adolescents (Riley, 1999), some art therapy techniques are designed to aid in the development of one’s identity (Beaumont, 2015). This is useful because self-concept clarity is related to positive adjustment. The current experiment was aimed at developing a more thorough understanding of how the expression of creativity affects self-concept clarity, particularly in individuals who already identify as artistic.

58 participants from Roanoke College psychology classes were gathered through the SONA online research management system. Participants, emerging adults who earned credit in class for their participation, were then randomly assigned to either complete a 2-D art task (a self-portrait) or to write about their last 24 hours (this was the control group). Before the task,  we collected information about level of artistic ability and experience in art. Before and after the task, they completed self-concept questionnaires, including indicating how certain they were (on a scale of 0-100) in each personality trait rated, and a self-report measure of self-concept clarity.

We found that overall, self-certainty (the average certainty in personality ratings) didn’t seem to differ based on doing the art task or not. But, then we ran tests separately for people who have an art background or not and found that if an individual already has an artistic background, they had higher self-concept certainty after doing a creative task than individuals who have no artistic background (see Figure 1). We expected this experiment would result in evidence indicating that creative outlets aid in one’s sense of self-concept clarity, and found that this was true only for people with an artistic background. However, other measures of creativity and experience in art were not related to certainty in self-concepts, and responses on the self-reported self-concept clarity scale were not related to participation in the task.

Since only one finding reached statistical significance, it is important to consider possible sources of error. Due to some unforeseen issues, we were forced to adapt our study into an online-only study. This may have been an issue because one group of participants was prompted to complete a drawing task. Without being able to supervise the participants, there was no way to control the conditions under which each participant completed the task. Another issue we faced was participants submitting incomplete surveys. This too may be due to the shift to online-only studies. One way we may have been able to get better results would be to have a larger sample size with more participants in each group, completing the study in person.

The purpose of this study was to determine if creative outlets are an effective way to aid in the development of self-concept clarity in college students. We wanted to expand upon the existing research by comparing 2-D art to a non-creative task, as well as further defining the effect creativity has on self-concept clarity in emerging adults. The evidence suggests a relationship between artistic expression and identity exploration, but only in those who already have an artistic background. So, creative outlets may be less helpful to self-concept clarity for people with little or no prior background in art. This study has helped us understand the relationship between artistic expression and the self-clarity concept in emerging adults.

Figure 1: Average Self-Concept Certainty by Art Task/Control group and by Previous Art Experience.


Beaumont, Sherry. (2015). Art Therapy Approaches for Identity Problems during Adolescence. Canadian Art Therapy Association Journal. 25. 7-14.

Dollinger, Stephen & Dollinger, Stephanie & Centeno, Leslie. (2005). Identity and Creativity. Identity. 5. 315-339. 10.1207/s1532706xid0504_2.

Riley, S. (1999). Contemporary art therapy with adolescents. London: Jessica Kingsley

A Study Examining Responses to Overt Versus Relational Aggression in College Students

Hailey Davis, Jon Cody Mactutus, Alina Marino, and Hayley Mulford

Advisor: Dr. Findley-Van Nostrand

[Picture of Girl Being Bullied] (2015). Retrieved from

Background Information

The present study evaluated whether type of aggression (overt, relational) witnessed towards a peer impacted likelihood to intervene and/or desire to punish the aggressor, considering desensitization as a factor. Most peer aggression studies focus on childhood and adolescence, but we used emerging adults (18-24) instead because it would be further expansion as less is known about peer aggression in this age group.

Relational aggression is indirect, status hurting actions whereas overt aggression is direct actions with the intent to cause harm (Cairns, Neckerman, Ferguson, & Gariépy, 1989). Previous research has found that aggression has negative impacts on all involved; aggressors, victims, bystanders (Rivers, Poteat, Noret, & Ashurst, 2009). Both relational and overt aggression have internalizing and externalizing problems as negative possible outcomes for experiencing these types of aggression (Casper, Card, Bauman, & Toomey, 2017). The current study aimed to explore the differences in outcomes (intervening and punishing) based on the form of aggression (overt or relational). Although relational aggression is more common, especially in this age group, and just as problematic, people are less likely to recognize it as aggression (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995). So, we also tested whether people are more likely to perceive overt or relational aggression as aggression. Finally, we also explored the relationship of mood and previous exposure to aggression in these responses.


We recruited our participants through SONA, Roanoke College’s online psychology research website. Participants were awarded credit for their participation in this study. Everything was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Roanoke College Institutional Review Board, with participants supplying informed consent. In an online survey, participants were assigned to read a vignette about either relational or overt aggression where a familiar peer is aggressed upon by a stranger. First, they were asked questions to determine their current emotional state, then read a singular vignette, and then were asked if they thought the scene they read about was aggression. We also included a question to ensure that participants paid attention. 26 failed the check, leaving our final number of participants to be 130. We asked each participant whether what they just read about was aggression (and to what extent they thought it was aggression), how likely they would be to intervene in the situation, and to what extent they believed the aggressor should be punished. Participants were then asked about their previous exposure to either type of aggression. Lastly, participants were asked demographic information.

Results and Discussion

The results of the project were not as promising as we hoped. We had 60 participants in the relational aggression group and 69 participants in the overt aggression group. There was no significant difference in desire to punish between types of aggression. There was also no significant difference in likelihood to intervene between types of aggression. Sadly, the predictions that there would be a difference among the type of aggression and how a by-stander would feel and react were not found to be supported (see Figure 1). However, we did find that the type of aggression had an effect on the perception of whether the act was aggression or not- people were more likely to perceive overt aggression as aggression relative to relational aggression. Unfortunately, the predictions that prior exposure would account for some variance and predictive value in both intervening and punishing was not found to be supported either. Finally, emotion was not found to have a relationship with the likelihood to punish. We did not expect for most of our predictions to be rejected, but there are some promising ideas still prevalent. It is important that there is a relationship between how someone perceives aggression and the type because this can play a role in bullying. It seems from this study that relational aggression is not seen as aggression, which could help in efforts to reduce bullying. The statistical analyses we used may not have been complicated enough to reveal complex structures and relationships, but future studies could delve deeper.

Figure 1

Perception of Aggression, Likelihood to Intervene, and Desire to Punish Based  on Type of Aggression

Note. All variables were on a scale from 1-10. Perception of aggression (blue bars) differed significantly by type of aggression. The other variables did not.


Despite our results not being what we anticipated them to be, we were able to find out how people interpreted aggression. Fortunately, we did not have any problems with our research when we were no longer on campus and able to access the lab. The only difference with having to make our study online was the amount of credit the participants received. Our study took into account a wide range of variables so we could look at multiple factors that could possibly have an influence on the participants’ answers.


In conclusion, thoughts about the aggression witnessed did not seem to differ much between type of aggression, current state of emotions, or prior exposure to aggression. Some of our results might contradict other research, like our finding that prior exposure did not influence intervention or punishing, but some of our results match very well. Our study, as well as many others, found that people correctly identified overt aggression as a form of aggression. So, people know overt aggression when they see it which means you can rest assured that people are watching out for you! However, it seems relational aggression is less recognizable, which could say something about the way college students interact.


Cairns, R.B., Cairns, B.D., Neckerman, H.J., Ferguson, L.L., & Gariepy, J.-L. (1989).  Growth and aggression: I. Childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 25, 320– 330.

Casper, D. M., Card, N. A., Bauman, S., & Toomey, R. B. (2017). Overt and relational aggression participant role behavior: Measurement and relations with sociometric status and depression. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 27(3), 661–673.

Rivers, I., Poteat, V. P., Noret, N., & Ashurst, N. (2009). Observing bullying at school: The mental health implications of witness status. School Psychology Quarterly, 24(4), 211–223.

Measuring Persistence in Psychology Students

Athey Crump, Emily Giovanini, Elizabeth Helminski, Mariyana McAgy & Kojiro Leonard (Advisor: Chris Buchholz)

Background Information

What causes individuals to complete difficult tasks? Locus of control is categorized into two levels: internal and external. Individuals with internal LOC believe they have control over their environment, whilst individuals with external LOC believe their environment controls them (Killpack, 2005). After examining current literature on LOC, we discovered a gap in past research, which had looked at the relationships between LOC and motivation, competence, and self-efficacy, but not perseverance (Rotter, 1996). Our research is designed to focus on the relationship between LOC and persistence. We hypothesized that those scoring a high internal LOC would have a longer duration while those scoring a high external LOC would have a shorter duration.


In this study participants (77) were asked to solve a series of math problems. Half of the participants were led to believe they had some control over the difficulty of the math problems, while the other half were led to believe that the difficulty of the questions was random. However, the manipulation did not work due to an unforeseen error in setting up the study. As a part of this study, participants were also asked to complete a scale that measured whether they possessed more internal or external locus of control using Rotter’s scale of Locus of Control.

Results & Discussion

Data collected from the survey was run with the results from the LOC questionnaire. While there was no difference in the total number of math problems completed for external vs. internal locus of control, those who have an internal locus of control did spend more time answering questions but these results were not statistically significant, as seen in Figure 1. So, while these two groups (internal/external) completed the same number of problems, it is possible that those with an internal locus of control spent more time thinking and working on them, as can be seen in Figure 2. This makes some sense in that those with internal locus of control feel they have more control, and thus they spend more time working (i.e. persisting).

Figure 1: Internal and external locus of control on number of math problems completed.

Figure 2: Internal and external locus of control on duration of survey.


The process of conducting an experiment from start to finish provided the opportunity to put knowledge we’ve gained over the past four years into a single project. When creating an online study, we gained experience using programs like SPSS, SONA and Qualtrics. Though there were several changes that needed to be made to the study, this only allowed us the opportunity to showcase our knowledge of research skills. Though there were several challenges to overcome, this study allowed us, as students to think and act as researchers and provided the opportunity to have these skills as undergrads.

Examining How Music Affects Mood

Nina Amato, Hailey Davis, Emily Deeds, Kinsey Overfelt, Valerie Spasojevic (Advisor Chris Buchholz)

Background Information

Music has been around for centuries and it has been used in many different ways, from ceremonies, to dancing, or even to uplift the soul.  Philosophers have wondered what the purpose of music is and what it does for us.  Many people believe that music can affect their mood – we were curious about this as well and wanted to take it a step further to see if happy or sad music was able to change ones mood when combined with having a certain personality trait.  We predicted that people with a high level of Neuroticism would have their mood shifted the most due to the type of music they were listening to.  We predicted that this specific personality trait would be most likely to change their mood due to the type of music because it is said that people with the personality trait of Neuroticism tend to be emotionally unstable, which would allow their mood to shift easily.  To examine the effects, we used different tests in order to assess how a happy song and a sad song affected the moods of different personalities.  Specifically, we predicted that people having a personality high in Neuroticism will convey a happier mood in the happy music group, as well as convey a sadder mood in the sad music group.  We  also predicted that those who are low in neuroticism will not have their mood as affected by the music since they are in theory more emotionally stable individuals.


Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in the study, either listening to a happy or sad version of the same song.  Individuals then self-reported their mood via a slider scale immediately after listening to the song condition to which they were assigned.  Participants then took the Big Five Inventory (BFI) questionnaire to measure personality traits (e.g., neuroticism).

Results and Discussion

There was a significant difference between the moods of the people in the sad condition versus the happy condition (see Figure 1). Also, in line with our predictions, we found that those high in neuroticism did have a significant difference between their reactions to happy versus sad music, while this was not the case for those low in neuroticism (see Figure 2).

Figure 1: The effect of music on mood.

Figure 2: Interaction effects between music condition and neuroticism.


We experienced challenges throughout our research because we anticipated our study to be conducted in a lab setting, not completely online. We originally decided that we wanted to have an in-person study so we could ensure that individuals would listen to the song entirely and not have any distractions, however, we had to switch to an online version of our study due to the Coronavirus.  Our study also does not take into account the mood the individual was already experiencing, which could have impacted mood persuasion.


The department normally hosts a poster session to present all of the research that happens each semester; however, due to stay at home restrictions we will present student research on our blog. Over the next several days we will be posting some of the research carried out by our students here. Congratulations students for all of your hard work!

–  Chris Buchholz, Psychology Department Chair

Pie A Professor TODAY!

Today is the day. The day you get to see your professors pied! From 5pm-6pm at Sutton Terrace RCPA and Psi Chi will make your dreams come true by pieing 6 of our beloved professors for your enjoyment, all while raising money for the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention.

Pieing will occur at 5:30pm, with the opportunity for students to pay $10 to personally pie a professor of their choice. Bring your friends!

The current rankings are:

  1. Dr. Buchholz & Dr. Carter (tied for first)
  2. Dr. Findley-Van Nostrand
  3. Dr. Nichols
  4. Dr. Osterman
  5. Dr. Allen

Attention Alumni

We invite you to join us at the Psychology Department alumni reception this Saturday April 14th from 4:00-5:30 pm at the Lucas Library and outdoor balcony. Note, you are encouraged to attend even if you have not registered for this event. We hope to see you there!

Alumni Reception – April 8th, 2017

The Psychology Department will be hosting an alumni reception during Alumni Weekend (Saturday, April 8th) in Lucas Library (215) and on the adjacent outdoor balcony from 4:00 to 5:30pm. We are excited to see our returning alumni at this event.

Please stop by for some drinks, snacks, and fun activities with the Psychology Department!

Get connected!

Welcome Dr. Travis Carter

Dr. Travis Carter will be joining the Psychology Department in the fall of 2017 as our newest Tenure-Track Assistant Professor of Social Psychology. He received his PhD from Cornell University and then worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Decision Research at the University of Chicago. Most recently he worked as an Assistant Professor at Colby College in Maine.

At Roanoke College, Dr. Carter will teach Quantitative Methods, Social Psychology, and will eventually design new courses in the Social-Personality domain. He has conducted research in the areas of judgement and decision making, social cognition, and consumer behavior, focusing on the internal and external forces that produce biased judgments. For instance, one study examined the effects of accusations of bias on Major League Baseball umpires’ subsequent ball and strike calls. We are excited to have Dr. Carter join the Department!

Welcome Dr. Danielle Findley-Van Nostrand

Dr. Danielle Findley-Van Nostrand will be joining the Psychology Department in the fall of 2017 as our newest Tenure-Track Assistant Professor of Developmental Psychology. She comes to us from the University of South Florida in Tampa, where she completed her PhD and holds a Post-Doctoral position in STEM education.

At Roanoke College, Dr. Findley-Van Nostrand will teach courses in Developmental Psychology. Her research is interdisciplinary and focuses on social experiences and their relation to the self and adjustment in adolescents and young adults. We are excited to have Dr. Findley-Van Nostrand join the Department!

Welcome back students


Everyone in the Psychology Department is excited to begin a new academic year. We want to welcome our new students, as well as our returning majors, minors, and students in concentrations.

You will notice a few changes in the Department this year. First, we have two new faculty members joining us this year: Dr. Athena Buckthought (cognitive neuroscience) and Dr. Laura Mills-Smith (developmental psychology). Please give them a warm welcome when you return. Second, you may noticed some upgrades to the classrooms, new hallway furniture, and our new Student Computer Lounge across from the elevator.

We are looking forward to working with all of you to make it a great year! Stay tuned to our blog and facebook page for upcoming events and opportunities.

Get involved

 Get connected

 Student Resources

Alumni Weekend Departmental Reception

The Psychology Department will be having an alumni reception over Alumni Weekend (Saturday, April 9th) on the outdoor balcony of Lucas Hall (2nd floor) from 4:00 to 5:30pm. (Rain Location: Lucas 215)

Please stop by for some drinks, snacks, and fun activities with the Psychology Department!  1-DSC_1732Contact Chris Buchholz (, 540-375-4904) for more information.

Get connected!


Psychology Department Fall Feast

Fall_imageJoin the Psychology Department this Sunday November 22nd for a Fall Feast. Faculty will be cooking savory and sweet treats. All students are welcome. Come join in the fun and socialize to celebrate the season.

Location – Lucas Library (215)

Time – 11:30-1:00

Sponsored by RCPA and PsiChi


Congratulations Dr. Early on your coming retirement!

chuck and pie


Congratulations Dr. Early on your retirement! We will all miss you greatly!

The following is the resolution read at the last faculty meeting for Dr. Charles Early:

We the members of the faculty, staff and Trustees of Roanoke College rise to give tribute to and offer the following resolution honoring Dr. Charles Edgar Early, Professor of Psychology, for his long and distinguished service of 27 years to the Department of Psychology, to thousands of his students and to the entire Roanoke
College community.

Whereas, seeing little usefulness in dropping nuclear weapons on our foes, Chuck wisely decided that using psychology to communicate with the enemy and feeling their pain would be a better approach. Thus, he resigned from the Air Force and
began to pursue graduate studies in psychology. It is wise to remember he served as a Major in the U.S. Air Force as a ground traffic controller of fighter jets and also maintained nuclear targeting dossiers on the locations of various Soviet Generals,
and he earned his black belt in Tae Kwan Do style karate in Korea therefore it may be best we not get on the black-list he might still maintain.

Whereas, Chuck earned many academic degrees culminating in a Ph.D. from Penn State and attended the Air Command Intelligence School twice, we can be certain that he is indeed, by Air force and any other standard, intelligent.

Whereas, after Chuck relinquished his position as chair after years of distinguished service, his successor Dr. Ronda Carpenter referred to him as her first officer in the administration of the department. He has maintained this capacity as a fountain of administrative wisdom to all subsequent chairs of our department. His wise counsel
will be missed.

Whereas, Chuck’ history of psychology course has been recognized as a tough rite of passage for majors, it has spurred students to nominate him for the College-wide teaching award. He has led many students to succeed because he believed in them.  His advising success is a model for others in the department. Chuck is clearly well loved by his students who gave him an A+ rating on They also awarded him a hubba-hubba chili pepper and likened him to Richard Gere.

Whereas, Chuck has been a life-long aficionado of the writings of Edgar Rice Burroughs, we hope that he can make use of a portion of his retirement to explore the curious psychology of the feral child Earl John Clayton Greystoke, AKA “Tarzan.” Another interest of Chuck’s is amateur astronomy, and he has attended several
annual Texas Star Parties near Fort Davis, Texas, in the fantastically dark skies where the light from the Milky Way casts your shadow on the ground. We wish him many dark and clear skies in future Texas Star Party events.

Whereas, Chuck still works out even now at retirement age, can do chin-ups and out bench press weights not achievable by the majority of RC campus’ student body, faculty and staff. We wish him continued good health and physical strength to endure the rigors of retirement. We also hope he will send us “selfies”.

Whereas, Chuck is legendary as the person who never skipped desserts, it is known that his very favorite pie flavor of all time is Apple, Peach, Cherry, Pumpkin and Blueberry. Peanut butter pie need not apply. He and a former colleague, coined the term “piece-let” to refer to small slices of pie or cake that would reasonably be
conjoined into a “piece” of dessert. In fact, Chuck has used his conditioning techniques, taught in learning, to ensure that any department member who attends Commons lunch uses their carryout item as a dessert for Chuck when we are not
graced with his lunchtime presence.

Whereas, he retains his classic comic book collection, we hope that these increase in value over the years comparably to the original Superman comic book was recently auctioned at eBay for 3.2 million dollars. These can accompany his collection of over 3000 significant books in his hand-made beautiful bookcases in his living room and office.

Whereas, Chuck is the model of a Renaissance man who has taught 20 different courses, written a book, published 22 papers, 16 reviews of chapters or books, and made 49 significant presentations and co-editing of a massive “Pictorial history of Psychology.” Now that Chuck plans to move to the Savannah, GA area to be nearer
his daughter, a successful Roanoke College alumna, we reveal that one unit of the bookcases in his home office swings aside to reveal a secret room. Dr. Pranzarone has been sworn not to reveal what Chuck kept in this formerly secret room, so it is incumbent upon friends of Chuck to communicate with him frequently if they hope
that this information be divulged. We suspect superhero powers are at play.

Whereas, it is noted that while Charles is retiring, suspiciously coincident with the retirement of his colleague Dr. Jan H Lynch, we will no longer see that they quite frequently departed the department at the same time arm-in-arm. Rumors will now
cease as they are separated to divergent parts of the United States.
Whereas, Chuck is often looked to for guidance, wisdom, and calm; we will use key quotes of his to keep his spirit alive in the department: “Students are our motivation.” and “We are first and foremost a teaching college; let us not forget.”

Whereas, we all here as part of the Roanoke College family have greatly benefited from the friendship, warmth, sincerity, gentle good humor of this tall fellow, be it then resolved that we all wish him health, clear skies and fair weather in his retirement from professorship at Roanoke College; that he be granted long life and
prosperity and that his curiosity and drive for life-long learning never be diminished.

Therefore, it so resolved that these comments be then entered into the official minutes of the Meeting of the Faculty of Roanoke College in gratitude and celebration of the life and career of Dr. Charles Edgar Early.



Band of Professors


Professors Rich Grant (Physics), Mike Maina (Human Health and Performance), and Chris Buchholz (Psychology) will be playing covers from the 60’s to current hits at Parkway Brewing Co. Thursday April 23rd from 4:00-8:00pm.

Check them out at


Psychology Department Just Dance Party

By popular demand. Almost everyone got into the dance party. Almost everyone.

The annual Psychology Department Just Dance Party has been scheduled! Join us to dance or watch on Wednesday April 29 from 2 to 3:30 in Life Sciences room 515. We really hope to see the psychology seniors there, but everyone is welcome, no matter your major. Local alums are welcome also. And we particularly welcome anyone who can beat reigning champion Dr. David Nichols.
See what we mean?

UVA undergraduate psychology conference


If you have research you have worked on as an Independent Study or in Research Seminar in the last year, you should consider submitting to the UVA psychology undergraduate conference (see below).

To:  Undergraduate Psychology Students

Re:  L. Starling Reid Undergraduate Psychology Research Conference

Abstract proposals for oral or poster presentations may be submitted until March 9, 2015 for the Reid Undergraduate Psychology Research Conference at U.Va.  To register and for further information visit  Information there includes:

  • who may present
  • proposal selection process
  • abstract guidelines.

The keynote lecture will be “How Emotions are Made” by Lisa Feldman Barrett, PhD., University Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Director of the Interdisciplinary Affective Science Laboratory (IASLab) at Northeastern University.

Modest funds to defray some travel expenses may be available for out-of-state presenters.

We look forward to receiving your conference presentation proposal.


John B. Rudder

Undergraduate Coordinator

U.Va. Department of Psychology


Welcome Dr. Darcey Powell to the Psychology Department!

Powell Headshot 3The Psychology Department is proud to announce our newest faculty member, Assistant Professor Darcey Powell! Dr. Powell joined the department in 2014 and has worked as a Visiting Assistant Professor for the last year.  She received a B.S. in Psychology (’09) from West Virginia University, a M.S. (’11) from West Virginia University and a Ph.D. (’14 ) in Life-Span Developmental Psychology from West Virginia University. Her research interests include examining the expectations of emerging adults about future adult roles, such as parenting, as well as parents’ expectations for and perceptions of their experience caring for a young child. She is also interested in research related to teaching and learning; exploring methods to increase students’ retention of material and application of skills, as well as examining differences between subjective and objective evaluations of instructors’ teaching style.

Please welcome Dr. Powell to the Department as our newest tenure-track member!

Carilion Clinic Career Focus Dinner

November 6, 4:30-7pm

Location: off-campus site TBD

Large health care organizations offer a variety of opportunities for employment, internships, and research to students in many majors – Business, social sciences, and healthcare related fields. Come and hear from one of our local health care systems – Carilion Clinic – about such opportunities, as this could be useful in looking for similar settings in other locations. Registration is required by Thursday, October 30, through Career Services. This program takes place off-campus and includes dinner at no cost. Rides are available if desired or needed. For more information, contact Career Services.

For more information contact: Toni McLawhorn (540) 375-2303